There are certain pathologies or infections that usually cause the appearance of a anterior uveitis, the most common conditions are:
Ankylosing spondylitis is an autoimmune disease that mainly affects the joints of young men. It is the most common known cause of anterior uveitis; therefore, before any anterior uveitis should be ruled out ankylosing spondylitis with an X-ray of the pelvis, since the first joints to be affected are the sacro-iliac. The reason why uveitis is triggered is not known, but it is more associated with the genetic group HLA-B27 +, which intervenes in the functioning of the immune system.
Juvenile chronic arthritis
It is another autoimmune disease, which in this case is the cause of more frequent anterior uveitis in childhood, after uveitis due to an unknown cause. It occurs mainly in the oligoarticular subtype, that is, in situations where few joints are affected. In this case, the anterior uveitis is not acute, it is chronic, and usually with few symptoms, so it may go unnoticed and the patient may develop blindness. Oligoarticular arthritis associated with eye problems is more prevalent in girls under seven years of age. For this reason, ophthalmological controls are performed on girls who suffer from this disease every 3-6 months until they reach 16 years of age, since afterwards the disease usually disappears. It is associated with the appearance in blood of ANA + autoantibodies, which are also present in lupus and in autoimmune hepatitis.
Reiter's syndrome is quite frequent in the population. It happens when after a digestive or sexual infection the immune system reacts against the causative microorganism and, at the same time, against different organs of our body. The most affected organs are the joints, the urethra and the eye. Although conjunctivitis usually occurs, anterior uveitis can also occur, especially if the affected person is a young man with HLA-B27 +. The isolated symptoms are treated, since the syndrome remits little by little without the need of specific medication.
Behçet's disease is part of a group of diseases called vasculitis. In these diseases the blood vessels are affected, in the case of Behçet the small capillaries. It is characterized by the appearance of aphthae in the mucosa of the mouth and in the genitals, and by the involvement of the uvea. The anterior uveitis is the most characteristic of this disease, although panuveitis is more frequent. The treatment is symptomatic, but in this case the disease does not subside and the outbreaks appear irregularly throughout life.
Sarcoidosis in an autoimmune disease that mainly affects black males and essentially damages the lungs. However, there are less frequent forms of presentation such as the Heerfordt triad: anterior uveitis, fever and mumps or mumps. In this case, the affected ones are young women and the anterior uveitis is chronic, appearing many granulomas that, deposited in the iris, give the appearance of "mutton fat".