Thanks to the advances that have taken place in the field of genetics and, in particular, in the field of cytogenetics - which deals with the study of chromosomes - now many hematological neoplasms, such as acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias, leukemias chronic lymphatics or myelodysplastic syndromes, can be diagnosed with methods that are based on the genetic alterations that these pathologies present.

The progress made in the cytogenetic techniques Not only have they facilitated the detection of malignant hemopathies, but they have also made it possible to identify the various types of genetic alterations involved in the most aggressive blood cancer and, in this way, be able to adjust the treatment of affected patients, improving the prognosis of the disease.

The advance of cytogenetic techniques has made it possible to identify the different types of genetic alterations involved in the most aggressive blood cancer, which allows adjusting the treatment and improving the prognosis of the disease.

Currently, two cytogenetic techniques are used to diagnose an important group of malignant hemopathies: the Conventional Cytogenetics with G bands, with which genetic alterations of great magnitude are analyzed at the chromosomal level, explains Dr. Blanca Espinet, coordinator of the Group. Spanish Cooperative of Hematological Cytogenetics of the Spanish Society of Hematology and Hemotherapy-, and the Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique, with which smaller genetic alterations can be observed in specific areas.

The expert points out, however, that there are still difficulties in diagnosing certain types of blood cancer that do not manifest any alteration that can be identified by cytogenetic techniques, but it is expected that the new techniques, which allow deciphering the human genome complete, contribute to solve this challenge.

Dr. Espinet also trusts that a deeper knowledge of the genetic and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of hematological malignancies will facilitate the design of new medicines more effective in the treatment of these neoplasms.

More information at: www.gcecgh.org

Source: Spanish Cooperative Group of Hematological Cytogenetics (GCECGH) of the Spanish Society of Hematology and Hemotherapy (SEHH)

Advances in Treatments of Blood Cancers (including Immunotherapy) (November 2019).